Saturday, November 21, 2015

Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011)

Important Points that you must remember regarding Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC 2011)

  • By Ministry of Rural Development
  • Started in 2011 >> Completed in 2015
  • First census to be completely paperless >> taken on electronic hand held devices by enumerators
  • Done in only 640 districts across the country
    • All districts and states not covered
  • Objectives
    • enable households to be ranked based on their socio-economic status so that Govt can prepare list of beneficiaries for its welfare schemes
    • Personal Data of Population Census held every 10 years is confidential and cannot be used for any other purpose, but the data from Socio Economic Census is not confidential and will be used by State Govt to grant or restrict benefits to certain households
  • SECC provided for criteria for automatic exclusion and inclusion
  • Findings of SECC
    • There are nearly 24.39 crore households of which 17.91 crore households are in rural areas and out of these 10.69 crore are considered deprived.
    • Over 90% rural households do not have salaried jobs for any member
    • Only 3.4 % households have any member above 25 years with graduation completed
    • 30% rural households depend on cultivation, while 51% derive their income from manual casual labour.
    • 56.25% rural households have no agricultural land

Criticism of SECC

  • Data may not be true reflection of the real state of affairs
    • there may be inclusion and exclusion errors
    • people may report wrong data for the fear of losing benefits under schemes
    • data is taken only for 640 districts and extrapolated for contiguous regions, which may not reflect the real picture

Thursday, November 19, 2015

EU Refugee Crisis - An Overview

Start preparation for Interview right now... Read what were the important events that happened in 2015...

About Refugee Crisis in Europe

Updated : 18-09-2015
You can read below some details about the EU Refugee Crisis. After you have idea keep yourself updated on the issue from newspaper.

1. What is it about ?
The West Asia is engulfed in civil war / terrorism is known to everybody. The population of West Asia now is migrating (read as seeking refuge) in Europe to save their life and avoid being persecuted by Government or terrorists.

2. How big is the Problem ?
From the last 10 months there has been steady rise in number of refugees coming in Europe. In August alone more than 1.5 lakh people crossed borders and sought refuge in Europe

3. Where are the Refugees moving ?
Inside Europe, Refugees are not settling evenly in 28-nation EU. Most of the refugees are trying to reach rich countries with generous immigration policies such as Germany & Sweden. Infact most of them want to reach the "Schengen Zone" - This is a 26 member nation group which has abolished the border controls and allows free movement of people..

4. What has EU done yet ?
EU President Jean Claude had submitted the plan for resettlement of 1,60,000 refugees, but Germany has called it insufficient to address the problem because number of refugees seeking asylum are far more in number. Germany alone has received 1.4 lakh applications for asylum. Germany is rather welcoming refugees and is pressing other nations and EU to do more to accomodate.

5. Is everybody in EU happy about taking refugees ?
Some countries believe that influx of refugees from West Asia and Africa could change the demographic profile of their countries. Prime Minister of Hungary has been referring to the refugees as a threat to Europe's Christian identity and has called for tougher border controls. Further this is the time when growth rate in EU and US is at low. Unemployment levels are higher, so there is unwillingness on the part of many EU nations.

6. Will EU keep on taking more and more refugees ?
There is a limit to what EU will be able to accomodate. Now many countries are reinstating border controls because they either do not have the resources to accommodate more refugees or it would become difficult to monitor any anti-social elements or terrorists in the influx which may pose security risk.The United Nations warned last week that if the war in Syria continues raging, millions of refugees are expected to come to Europe in the coming years.

US wants to tag India as ‘Emerging Economy’

What are the implications of India being recognized as ‘Emerging Economy’ instead of 'Developing Economy'?

United States demanding India and China be categorised as ‘emerging’ rather than as ‘developing economies’. India is resisting the move which, if it materialises, will halve WTO caps applicable to India’s food subsidies. It will also require India to grant greater market access to the U.S. This must be viewed with the fact that U.S. is insisting that India meet its food security law obligations with American imports
The U.S. insists that economies such as India and Indonesia with high rates of growth can no longer be categorised as developing countries.
India’s stand is that going by per capita income it is actually the world’s largest Least Developed Country where about 600 million live at less than $2 a day. Emerging economy categorisation at the WTO will lower the agriculture subsidy caps applicable to India from 10 per cent to 5 per cent

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Perils of Jute Industry

Perils of Jute Industry
Employment Potential : supports 40 lakh farmers & 3.5 lakh workers in Jute mills.
Turnover = 10,000 crore of which Exports = 2236 crore
What ails the Industry
  • Industry’s inability to modernize and stay competitive due to technological backwardness.
  • The industry is still dependent on Jute Packaging Material (Compulsory Use in Packaging Commodities) Act 1987. Also known as the JPM Act, it mandates compulsory using of jute packaging material in supply and distribution of foodgrains and sugar. Originally cement and fertilizers were also covered, but were later relaxed.
  • In the wake of competition from synthetic and high-density polythene bag making segment, the JPM Act has become the mainstay of the industry for remaining operative.
  • The industry is heavily dependent on Govt orders as almost 66% of jute products are procured by State agencies such as FCI.
  • There is also contentious issue of illegal imports of jute bags from Bangladesh. While there is no import ban, importers have to register themselves with the Office of Jute Commissioner. However unauthorized illegal imports shrink the market of domestic industry as well as lowers the price.
  • Export market is shrinking due to (a) tough competition from Bangladesh as the Bangaldeshi Govt is extending subsidies to its industry & (b) turmoil in key markets such as Thailand & West Asia.
It is time that Jute Industry diversify its product basket from jute bag dominated to including geo-textiles, handicrafts and decorative items.

Sunday, November 15, 2015

Poverty Estimation in India

Poverty Estimation in India

Why We need to identify Poor ?

India is a welfare state and the constitution obliges the the State to take measures for raising the standard of living of the people. Some people in the country may be resource deficit, while others may be above par. In democracy, government attempts to narrow this gap by taking up task of redistribution of resources. But resources at disposal of any society are limited and challenges are many. For effective redistribution and bringing lasting change, it is essential that deserving beneficiaries of government’s help are identified. To identify poor we need some benchmarks and person falling below this benchmark will be regarded as poor.

What is the history of Poverty estimation in India from pre-independence era up to the present ?

One of the earliest estimations of poverty was done by Dadabhai Naoroji in his book, ‘Poverty and the Un-British Rule in India’.  He formulated a poverty line ranging from Rs 16 to Rs 35 per capita per year, based on 1867-68 prices.  The poverty line proposed by him was based on the cost of a ‘subsistence diet’ consisting of ‘rice or flour, dhal, mutton, vegetables, ghee, vegetable oil and salt’.
Thereafter similar efforts were made in 1939 by National Planning Committee and in 1944 by the authors of Bombay Plan.

Working Group of Planning Committee 1962
In 1962, a Working Group of Planning Commission was tasked with determining desirable minimum level of expenditure required to make a living. It estimated national minimum consumption expenditure for a household of five members for urban (Rs 25 per person ) and rural areas ( Rs 20 per person).

Due to persistent food inflation during the 1960s & 1970s, there was intense debate over the figures of Working Group.

Alagh Committee 1979
In 1979, Alagh Committee was tasked with the mandate to revisit the poverty line estimates of the Working Group.
‘Average calorie requirements‘ were estimated, separately for the all -India rural and urban areas on the recommendation of Nutrition Expert Group. This resulted in different ‘Poverty line basket’ for urban and rural areas. The estimated calorie norm was 2400 kcal per capita per day in rural areas and 2100 kcal per capita per day in urban areas.
The monetary value of the consumption expenditure was calculated using the data of quantity of consumption and price from the NSSO survey. This poverty line was used for upcoming years after adjusting for rise in prices.

Lakadwala Committee 1993
This panel didn’t redefine poverty line and retained mechanism defined by Algah expert group. Instead it disaggregated ‘All India poverty line’ to ‘State specific Poverty Line’ (using Fisher index) for base year 1973-74.
For latter periods these ‘Rural and Urban Poverty lines of states’ were updated by taking into account:
a)’CPI- Agricultural Labor’   for ‘Rural state specific poverty line
b)’CPI- Industrial workers’   for ‘Urban state specific poverty line’.
And then All India poverty Ratio (rural and urban) was derived through ‘population based weighted average’ of poverty ratios of various states.

Tendulkar Committee 2005
It mostly adopted same poverty line (Lakdawala) but the major departures were –
  • It adopted ‘Mixed Reference Period‘ in place of ‘Uniform reference period‘ During previous methodologies, a ‘uniform reference period’ was used that included 30 days just before the survey for all food and nonfood items. But Tendulkar group changed ‘reference period’ to past one year for 5 nonfood items
  • It recommended a shift away from basing the Poverty Line basket (PLB) in caloric intake and towards target nutritional outcomes.
  • It favoured inclusion of non-food items such as private expenditure on education & health services while calculating consumption expenditure.
  • Contrary to the separate poverty line baskets of Rural and Urban areas, Tendulkar Committee appointed Uniform Poverty Line Basket.

The poverty line estimates given by Tendulkar Committee for 2011 were consumption expenditure per capita Rs 816/- for rural areas and Rs 1000/- for urban areas. This created a furore in the public and the Government appointed another Committee under Dr. Rangarajan in 2012 which submitted its report in 2014.

Rangarajan Committee 2012
The Committee preferred to use ‘Monthly expenditure of Household of five’ for the poverty line purpose which came out to be Rs 4860 in rural areas and Rs. 7035 in urban areas. It argued that considering expenditure of household is more appropriate than that of individuals. Living together brings down expenditure and as expenses such as house rent, electricity etc. gets divided into 5 members.

Other major recommendations were –
  • It reverted to old system of separate poverty line baskets for Rural and urban areas, which was unified by Tendulkar group.
  • Instead of ‘Mixed reference Period’ it recommended ‘Modified Mixed reference period’ in which different reference periods for different items.
  • Report says that poverty line should be based on
    • normative levels of ‘adequate nourishment’ plus clothing, house rent, conveyance, education
    • behaviorally determined level of other non-food expenses.
  • For the first time normative levels of fats and proteins besides calories were also considered as per the recommendations of Indian Council of Medical Research.

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Comprehensive Preparation Strategy for IBPS Clerical 2015

Part 1

Part 2

30 Mock Tests - Practice as many as you can .... Download from this page..

Links to banker adda
Bankers Adda Reasoning Quizzes Page.. Click here to visit Page

Bankers Adda Topic Wise Reasoning Study.. Click Here to Go

October Quiz - 01 Oct to 25 Oct 

Selective Reading as per time you have

Banks Headquarters

International Headquarters

Indian Personalities

Popular Cities of world on banks of river

Famous Indian Cities on bank of river

Popular Places in India - 1
Popular Places in India - 2

Geography Quiz - 1

Miscellaneous Quiz -1
Miscellaneous Quiz - 2
Miscellaneous Quiz - 3

Solving Dice Type Questions Easily

Some Full Forms you should not forget

Some Famous Books and Authors (Not latest)

Some Borders and lines

Simple Average Speed over whole Journey Type

Solving  √x + √x + √x …type questions 

Calculating Unit Digit Type

Try Completing this Series Questions

Coding and Decoding Exercise

Generic v/s Branded Medicines

Should the Doctors prescribe generic name of the drugs or the brand name ?


Way back sometime, the Economic Times
(Make Doctors legally bound to prescribe only generic drugs) stated that Government of India is planning to pass a legislation wherein doctors would be mandated to prescribe the drugs / medicine in its generic name and not the brand name of any particular drug (any specific manufacturer's drug).

The Health Ministry has already asked the doctors in all Central Government Hospitals and clinics to prescribe the drugs in their generic name along with the brand name.

But if the legislation comes in then not only doctors in central government hospitals, but also those in state government or private hospitals and clinics would be required to prescribe the medicine in its generic name along with the strength of the dose.

Present Practice & its Implications

Due to the practice of writing the brand name of drugs in prescription, the branded drugs have significant presence even after the loss of patent status & subsequent arrival of generic medicines.

Inter-molecular and Intra-molecular Competition

When a new molecule is introduced, whether or not it is patented, it has to compete with existing molecules for a doctor's attention. This is termed as Inter-molecular competition.
After the expiry of patent, other pharma companies too make this molecule and enter the market & compete within themselves. This is called Intra-molecular competion.

Detailing Exercise - The Pharma Companies spend a significant amount of money on detailing exercise i.e. advertising their products to the doctors so that doctors recommend their brand product.
The detailing exercise is basically meant to educate the doctor on a new drug & its efficacy vis-a-vis existing drugs and therapies.

But in practice the detailing is essential exercise which continues forever, even for the older drugs, the reason being to persuade the doctor to recommend a particular brand. This detailing becomes a marketing exercise to grab a larger share in the market.

When one company engages in such practice, all others too jump into the race of marketing (detailing) their products to doctors. They offer incentives direct / indirect / holiday packages and other stuff to persuade doctors in recommending their brand.

And when all companies engage in such activity, the benefit of such exercise is balanced and nobody gains/loses any of their share in market due to detailing.

The only consequence of such process is that the cost of marketing (detailing) + incentives which they are offering to the doctors is passed on to the customer by way of higher prices of the drug.

What Legislation has to Offer ?

Legislation wants to make the generic name prescription mandatory, the consequence of which is that the pharma companies may then not find any incentive to indulge in continuing detailing (marketing) to the doctor. If this detailing cost comes down, it can be expected that consequently the cost of the drugs should also lower.

The doctors while prescribing any brand in prescription are not price-conscious, whereas the escalating cost of branded drugs in the market makes a huge impact on the budget and pocket of the common man. When the branded drugs are not prescribed, the option of other cost-effective generic drugs can be of great help to the patient. This becomes relevant because of the mindset of the patient to strictly follow the prescription by doctor due to absolute lack of knowledge of patient in this domain.

These would essentially help to reduce the overall burden of healthcare in India.

In several countries where the doctor's prescription is given in generic name of the drugs, the pharmacist plays an important role in dispensing what is prescribed. In many countries he is allowed by law to substitute the branded medicine by generic medicine but bioequivalent of the prescribed one. The result is that manufacturers seldom indulge in detailing because even if the doctor recommends the brand, the pharmacist is allowed to replace it with bio-equivalent.

Cons of bringing in such a Legislation

+ A prerequisite of such a legislation is that the quality of a given molecule must be same in all the drugs manufactured by different pharma companies.
   - While the regulatory authorities have already mandated the pharma companies to strictly follow the "Good Manufacturing Practices" prescribed by WHO in 2005, their enforcement is still doubted.

+ The manufacturers may shift their attention from doctors to retail pharmacists by offering them incentives to fill the prescription by their brands and in doing so they may offer him higher margin along with lower cost.
This has implication because cost and quality are closely related which means that lower quality drugs could proliferate for the cause of lowering cost of drug.

+ Another issue pertains to the complex biological drugs like Insulin. The approval process of biosimilar drugs is not yet clear. These drugs are scientifically complex and sensitive to manufacturing process and the establishment of bio-equivalence in case of these biological drugs is not straightforward.

The Future of Skill Development in India

The National Policy on Skill Development is an attempt to increase labor mobility from low-skill to medium-skill segment. There are two probable scenarios that arise now. One is that job growth is greater or keeps pace with labor skill-upgradation and other where it does not. No significant issues are foreseen in the former scenario but if it is the latter then the critical question is, what are the alternative employment opportunities for the upgraded labor? 
The emigration of low-skill labor from India to Middle-East and high-skill labor to USA and other developed countries is already prevalent. But what will have to be facilitated in the future is the emigration of medium-skill laborfrom India to the global market. 

This will require in return two issues to be resolved. 
Are the standards of training and certification in Skill Development in India comparable to that of the global standards, hence facilitating labor mobility without cost of additional certification or assessment? 
And are the immigration regulations of the different countries liberal enough to facilitate easy labor mobility?

 If our certification standards aren’t global then the cost of certification per capita would significantly increase, the magnitude of increase remains to be calculated. This would in turn mean that the government’s reimbursement of INR 10,000 per student in vocational training may need to be revised. The status quo today is that, we have achieved globalization in capital and goods but globalization in labor is strongly resisted by local political economy and vested interests. For Indians to be able to push for liberal immigration rules in other countries especially those that will need medium skill labor such as the developed nations, a pro-active foreign policy is essential.
All of this points to the simple fact that skill development in India is a cross-departmental issue that needs concurrent engagement in multiple dimensions. But unfortunately the policy debate today is predominantly unidirectional and linear. This will require us to go back to the drawing-board. While the need is imminent, the interests lie more with the business community to push the political establishment to approach the issue with greater concern.